Roman Catholic Church

Roman Catholic Church

Development of the Roman Catholic Church




Have you ever heard that old saying "Your lies will eventually catch up with you."?

Well, the Vatican better get ready because A.C.T.S. hereby challenges their claims to doctrinal continuity and Apostolic succession based on critical-historical scholarship and their chickens have now come home to roost.

It is the author's intention to present this article in an objective and ethical manner providing an accurate historical outline to the reader, so as to educate based on the merits, free from the confines of denominational commitments.

"The first duty of the historian, which comprehends all others, is fidelity, the reproduction of the history itself, making it live again in his representation."

-P. Schaff, Historian, German Reformed

Ref: History of the Christian Church, vol 1, pg7

The outcome of which being one that produces within the reader, an ability to make an educated decision against the false Roman Catholic system, including the renouncing of the post-Scriptural Trinity Theory.

"The doctrine of the Trinity is a POST-SCRIPTURAL attempt to bring coherent expression diverse affirmations about God"

-Academic International Encyclopedia, 

pgs 300-301

It is the author's prayer that this exposition confronts the anti-Church system and all of her devices, at the very core, intervening towards the end, being her prophesied destruction.

"We study history in order to intervene in the course of history." 

-Adolph Harnack, Professor, University of Halle

Let this article hasten the return of our Great God and Savior, Jesus Christ. And the Spirit and the Bride say come. Even so, come Lord Jesus.


Early formula changes legitimize the RCC?


The official position of the Roman Catholic Church's changing of the baptismal formula is no secret, they openly flaunt it, and for good reason.

"The basic form of our profession of Faith (baptism into the "Triune God") took shape during the course of the 2nd and 3rd centuries in connection with the ceremony of baptism. So far as its place of origin is concerned, the text (Matt 28:19) came from the city of Rome."

-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger

Academia even regularly regurgitates the Vatican's lies. 

"The Baptismal formula was changed from the name of Jesus Christ to the words Father, Son and Holy Spirit by the Catholic Church in the second century."

-The Catholic Encyclopedia, II, pg263

This statement is derived from a misinformation campaign propagated by the Roman Catholic Church herself.

The reason the Roman Catholic Church promotes this lie is in an attempt to gain legitimacy for their movement and the false Trinitarian doctrine that their movement is based upon. 

Please allow me to explain.

The Roman Catholic Church's claim that they existed to "change" the baptismal formula in the 2nd Century is erroneous. 

The Vatican bases this lie on the historical fact that Justin Martyr was the first to use Matt 28:19 in his baptismal formula in about 170 a.d. and was among the first proto-trinitarians. 

"The early church always baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus until development of Trinity doctrine in the 2nd century."

-Canney's Encyclopedia of Religion, pg 53

"Baptism was always in the name of Lord Jesus until the time of Justin Martyr when Triune formula was used."

-Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion, II, Pg389

The Vatican asserts that because Justin was proto-Trinitarian, and baptised using the Matt 28:19 formula, that he must have been Catholic.

The Roman Catholics claim that Justin was Catholic so as to make it seem like their movement existed in Justin's time, as if Justin was Catholic.

"Justin Martyr was one of the early Fathers of the Roman Catholic Church."

-Catholic Encyclopedia, VIII

This is NOT true.

Justin was NOT Catholic.

The Roman Catholic Church did not begin to develope until the late 3rd and early 4th Centuries with Athanasius of Alexandria, a proto-Trinitarian leader, and his colleagues.

"Primative Christianity was NEVER Catholic."

Professor Adolph Harnack, Halle University

-Ref: "A History of Dogma"

In order for the RCC to be able to claim Apostolic succession and legitimacy, they have to try to make it look like they were in existence much earlier than they actually were.


Were early Roman Bishops Catholic?


In order to appear as to be present during early Christianity, the Vatican claims that all the Bishops of Rome were Catholic even back to Peter, when in fact, the early Roman Bishops were ALL Oneness (Modalistic Monarchians).

Stephen, 3rd Century

Zephrinus, 3rd Century

Callistus, 3rd Century

Elutherus, 2nd Century

Victor, 2nd Century

Clement, 1st Century

ALL of the above were Monarchian Bishops.

" Trinitarians CANNOT claim Apostolic succession through the Roman Bishops,... "

-Apologist Steven Ritchie, Oneness,

The Case for Oneness Theology, pg206

There was NOT a proto-Trinitarian Bishop of Rome until the last half of the 3rd Century and they were NEVER Catholic until the 4th Century.

Some writings of early Church and anti-Church Bishops (ie: Ignatius of Antioch, Monarchian and Clement of Alexandria, proto-Trinitarian, etc...) were "corrected" by the Roman Catholics to instigate their lies and many intellectually dishonest Trinitarian Teachers munipulate these interpolations and spurious additions as tools for misinforming an unsuspecting public. 


Proto-Trinitarians rejected the RCC's Trinity


As atrocious as our findings have been thus far, one fact that the Vatican cannot hide is that Origen of Alexandria developed the basis for their official Christological view towards the middle of the 3rd Century. 

"He (Origen) is the first theologian to state unequivocally that the “three hypostases” which constitute the Trinity are eternal not only in nature, but in their hypostatic character; there was never a time when wisdom was the latent thought of the Father and had not yet come forth as speech."

-Stanford University Encyclopedia of Philosophy

After usurping the Roman seat, found among the earliest proto-Trinitarian Bishops of Rome, in about 260 a.d., is a REJECTION of Origen's "Eternally Begotten Son" Theory taught by the Alexandrian, Egypt, proto-Trinitarians like Origen and Athanasius.

"Many divide and cut to pieces and destroy that most sacred Doctrine of the Church of God, the Divine Monarchy, making it as it were three powers, substances, and Godhead of Three."

-Dionysius, Bishop of Rome, proto-Trinitarian, 3rd Century

The Vatican don't want you to know that the majority of REAL proto-Trinitarians rejected Origen's theory until the late 3rd Century and early 4th Century when it became the law of the Roman Empire at 325 a.d.'s Council of Nicea.

"No theologian in the first three Christian centuries was a trinitarian in the sense of a believing that the one God is tripersonal, containing equally divine “persons”, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."

-Stanford University Encyclopedia of Philosophy

This is why the Roman Catholic Church hides the fact that Origen's "Eternally Begotten Son" doctrine was derived from his Tritheism position, they know that ALL of modern Trinitarianism hangs in that hat.

The Vatican don't want you to know that Origen of Alexandria, the creator of the "Eternally Begotten Son" Theory, was a true TRITHEIST because if this fact gets out to the public the entire modern Trinitarian house of cards comes crashing down. 

"God the Word, is a seperate Being and has an essence of His own."

-Origen, Proto-Trinitarian, 3rd Century

"The agent whom we call the Second Person of the Trinity is “another god” at Dialogue with Heraclides 2 and a “second god” on two occasions in his (Origen's) work Against Celsus (5.39, 5.61). This appellation is not attested in earlier Christian prose, though it is anticipated in Philo and Numenius."

-Stanford University Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Alexandrian Tritheistic Trinity Theory, with it's "Eternally Begotten Son" element, even though it was rejected until the late 3rd, early 4th Centuries by Monarchians and proto-Trinitarians alike, is the normal doctrine taught by most Trinitarian Theologians today. 

Most modern Trinitarians do NOT know, by design, that they are actually believing a doctrine quite opposite that of the majority of original proto-Trinitarians on all accounts.

"It is IMPOSSIBLE to document what we now call Orthodoxy (The Modern Trinity) in the first TWO CENTURIES of Christianity"

-Dr. Harold Brown, Trinitarian Professor, Reformed Theological Seminary

Ref: Heresy and Orthodoxy in the History of the Church 

Real Proto-Trinitarians and the Monarchians, Pre-Fourth Century, all taught that Logos was begotten in the beginning, NOT "Eternally Begotten" as another Person beside The Father.

"Though Origen rejects it, this was in fact the prevailing thesis of most Christian writing in the second century when it undertook to explain the Fourth Evangelist’s assertion that the one who became incarnate was the Logos who had been with the Father as theos (god) if not ho theos (God) from the beginning (John 1.1). Since it was this speech or word that created the world, it was argued, there would have been no reason for it to exist before the creation as a distinct hypostasis. If he existed at all, it was as the logos endiathetos, the word within, which had not yet emerged from the mind as logos prophorikos, or verbal utterance."

-Stanford University Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Today, the minority of BOTH the modern Trinitarian AND the modern Oneness (Modalistic Monarchian) movements teach 

the EARLY MAJORITY view that Logos was begotten in the beginning.

The main thing with Logos doctrine studies to remember, is that the Vatican wants people believing that Pre-Incarnate manifested Logos begotten in the beginning is exclusively a  proto-trinitarian doctrine that got lost in the Trinity Theory's doctrinal development. The reliance on this false assertion allows the Vatican to be able to attempt to claim doctrinal continuity and perpetuate their lies. 

The Vatican cannot claim doctrinal continuity and Apostolic succesion if the earliest Christian Bishops were Modalistic Monarchian and taught a Pre-Incarnate Logos begotten in the beginning.

In this case, the unsuspecting public's belief in the Vatican's lie allows Rome to claim that 1st and 2nd Century Monarchian Bishops were actually proto-Trinitarians, when these men were farthest from it. Belief in this lie also allows The Roman Catholic Church to claim that there were no Modalists until Noetus and Sebellius and that Modalism developed from fear of Tritheism.

To learn more about early Christology, please view my article at the following link:

"The History of Logos Doctrine"


Who were the Apostles' successors?


The RCC didn't begin to develope until the late 3rd Century and was not officially recognized as a legitament movement until 325 a.d., at Nicea, when the Modalistic Monarchians (the legitimant Church) signed a faith statement with them in order to affirm the Deity of Christ and in doing so, combat the Arian Heresy.

The Monarchians signing the Nicene Creed in 325 a.d. is what gave the Roman Catholic Church legitimacy (something they were theretofore unable to grasp) in the eyes of the Roman State and allowed the Emperor to appoint them leader of his religious arm. 

After their bloody war with the Arians, in the late 4th Century, the Roman Catholic Church turned their heads towards the Modalistic Monarchians to slaughter them in the name of Rome, even later ordering the whole town of Galatia put to death for refusing to be rebaptized into the "triune God". 

"The Modalists were the successors to the Apostles, NOT the Trinitarians. The Trinitarians expropriated the term "Catholic" (Universal) from the writings of Ignatius. When they increased in power and numbers they branded the Modalists, who preached one God, as Heretics and styled their group as Catholic."

-Dr. Friedrich Loofs, Trinitarian Historian, Professor at the University of Halle

Ref: The History of the Primative Church 

The Roman Catholic Church stemmed from an anti-Church movement which began in the mid to late 2nd Century out of Proto-Trinitarians who were Pagan Greek Philosophy School graduates which imposed Philosophy rules such as the "Demiurge" onto the Christian Faith, in fact necessitating Logos to be a seperate Person than The Original Deity from which Logos was radiated. 

"The doctrine of the (subordinate second Person) Logos and the Trinity recieved their shape from Greek Fathers, who....were much influenced, directly or indirectly, by the Platonic philosophy....that ERRORS and CORRUPTIONS crept into the Church from this source CANNOT be denied."

-New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge

"The historical evidence proves that the founding fathers of the Trinity Doctrine were known as 'Greek Fathers' because they were influenced by Platonic PHILOSOPHY from Plato and other Greek philosophers who were teaching the DEMIURGE idea of a LESSER Deity emanating from a HIGHER Deity. It is NO WONDER that Paul gave a prophetic warning to the Greek city of Colossae to 'beware lest any man CHEAT YOU through PHILOSOPHY'...."

-The Case For Oneness Theology, S. Ritchie

The proto-trinitarians' view was rejected in the 2nd and early to mid 3rd Centuries by ALL seated Bishops who's record is extant ,(available), and the main contributors to forming the Trinity doctrine during its time of early development were ALL excommunicated. (Hippolytus, Turtullian, Novatian, Origen)

The legitimate seated Bishops of the Church refused to fellowship with  the Proto-Trinitarians and identified them as worshippers of 2 gods and 3 gods.

" The Monarchians are constantly 

throwing out against us that we are 

preachers of TWO gods and THREE gods... "

-Turtullian, Proto-Trinitarian, 3rd Century

" Now Callistus [Bishop of Rome] brought forward Zephrinus himself [successor Bishop of Rome] and induced him to publicly avow

"I know that there is one God Jesus Christ."

And we becoming aware of his sentiments, 

did not give place to him but reproved and withstood him for the truth's sake.

And he hurried headlong into folly and called us worshippers of TWO gods. "

-Hippolytus, Proto-Trinitarian, 3rd Century

Oneness Pentecostalism or Modalistic Monarchianism was the original Church's doctrine and the Proto-Trinitarians, having been rejected, produced their own "Churches" and "Schools" and installed their own "Bishops" in response.

"Modalistic Monarchianism", was once, "embraced by the vast majority of ALL Christians."

-Professor Adolph Harnack, Halle University

Ref: "History of Dogma"

" That God is One, absoloutly One-One in Essence and in Person-is the corner-stone of true theology"...."we hope to be able to set forth sufficient evidence to warrant the conclusion, that the doctrine to which we refer (the Trinity) may fairly be classed among the CORRUPTIONS of Christianity, as one of the numerous DEPARTURES from "the simplicity that is in Christ." "

-Ref: "The Origin of the Doctrine of the Trinity in the Christian Church", 1883, Morning Light Journal, Oxford University


The Official Church taught what about God?


“Modalists were predominant within the mid third century….the later Athanasian (Eternally Begotten Son) idea of the Son of God was “scarcely preached in the Churches”.”

-Steven Ritchie, Apologist, 


"Callistus [Bishop of Rome] alleges that the Logos Himself is both the Son and also the Father Himself. Callistus says that although called by a different title in reality He is ONE indivisible SPIRIT. He says that the Father is not one person and the Son another, but that THEY are ONE and the SAME PERSON."

-Hippolytus, Proto-Trinitarian, 3rd Century

"Praxeas (Bishop from Asia Minor)

maintains that there is only 

ONE Lord, The Almighty Creator of the world....

he says that The Father Himself came down into the virgin, was Himself born of her, Himself suffered, and indeed was Himself 

Jesus Christ."

-Turtullian, Proto-Trinitarian, 3rd Century

"The Father, who was in The Son, took flesh and made it God, uniting it with Himself and made it ONE, Father and Son were therefore the Name of the ONE God, and this Person CANNOT be two; thus the Father suffered with the Son."

- Bishop Callistus of Rome, Monarchian,

3rd Century

"There is ONE God who revealed Himself through Jesus Christ..."

-Bishop Ignatius of Antioch, Monarchian, 

1st Century, Friend of the Apostle John 

"There is one physician, fleshly and spiritual, begotten and unbegotten, God in man, true life and death both of Mary and of God first passible then impassible, Jesus Christ Our Lord."

-Bishop lgnatius of Antioch, Monarchian, 

1st Century, Friend of the Apostle John 

"....Christ The Lord....

....The Holy Spirit....

The Spirit is Christ....

The Spirit which is Christ."

-Bishop Clement of Rome, Monarchian,

2 Clement, chs9,14, Friend of the Apostle Paul 

"Bretheren, it is fitting that you should think of Jesus Christ as a Father, 

He has called us sons;"

-Bishop Clement of Rome, Monarchian,

2 Clement, ch1, Friend of the Apostle Paul 

"the pre-existant Holy Spirit who created all things did God make to dwell in a body of flesh chosen by Himself"....

"The Holy The Son of God."

-Hermas, Monarchian, The Shepherd, 1st Century, Friend of the Apostle Paul and Bishop Clement of Rome

"He (Jesus) makes clear to the disciples that He Himself is The Father, that 

He Himself is The Son, and that 

He Himself is The Holy Spirit."

-Epiphanius, proto-Trinitarian Panarion 62, 4th Century, commenting on The Gospel to the Egyptians


Findings on Valentinus and his

connections to proto-Trinitarians


The Trinity Theory did not begin to develope until the late 2nd Century with Tatian and Justin, unless you believe Valentinus to have first taught 3 hypostasis, in which case one could argue for mid 2nd century. 

"Valentinus, (flourished 2nd century AD), Egyptian religious philosopher, founder of Roman and Alexandrian schools of Gnosticism, a system of religious dualism"

-Encyclopedia Britannica

"In a text known as Pseudo-Anthimus, Valentinus is quoted as teaching that God is constituted of three hypostases (hidden spiritual realities) and three prosopa (persons), called the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit—a teaching that is unflatteringly tied to Platonism"

-New World Encyclopedia

Ireneaus called Tatian Justin's disciple, Which further links Valentinians with Proto-Trinitarians. Justin would have shared Tatian's doctrine in some sense. 

Justin was never a minister in the Church, but was a Philosopher who had attempted syncretising Christianity into the Philosophy Religious system and failed miserably due to it's incompatibility with the Judeo/Christian belief. 

Tatian, Justin's disciple, was also a disciple of Valentinus and was excommunicated as his follower by the official Church of Rome. 

Valentinus himself was up for a bid to secure the Bishopric of Rome and was passed over for the position and fled Rome.

At the same time Justin is teaching in Rome, Valentinus teaches Gnosticism and that God exists as 3 Hypostasis to Tatian in Rome. This shows that Valentinus could not have learned his Gnosticism after leaving Rome as some suggest.

Tatian gets found in heresy in Rome and is excommunicated and flees to Alexandria, while Valentinus had lost his bid for Bishop of Rome and left Rome, some say to Cyprus to learn Gnosticism as latter writers suggest, some say to his home, in Alexandria with Tatian. 

Tatian teaches Clement of Alexandria who quotes Valentinus more than any other early professing Christian writer.

"Fragments of Valentinus's writings have been preserved by quotation in the works of the church fathers, particularly those of Clement of Alexandria. The Gospel of Truth is thought by many scholars to be the work of Valentinus."

-A. Smith, Editor, The Gnostic

Ref: A Dictionary of Gnosticism, pg 254

Clement of Alexandria then teaches Origin of Alexandria who inserts from Philo of Alexandria an eternally generated Logos, "another god" beside the Father, into Valentinus of Alexandria's' three hypostatis theory. Origin lived with a Valentinian in Alexandria.

"Dr. F.C. Conybeare thinks that both the name and the idea of a divine Trinity were derived from an Alexandrian source....,"

-Canney's Encyclopedia of Religions

-Valentinus and Justin teach Tatian

-Tatian teaches Clement of Alexandria

-Clement of Alexandria teaches Origen

Valentinus, Tatian, Hippolytus, Turtullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Novation were ALL philosophy college graduates and most were virtually ALL excommunicated or refused fellowship by the Church. These are ALL considered proto-Trinitarian leaders accept for Valentinus. Why?

Can Valentinus be called a proto-Trinitarian?

If Valentinus can be called proto-Trinitarian, then proto-Trinitarians can be called Gnostics.

If that's so, we can see why they would all be excommunicated. 

Proto-Trinitarian Leaders were always the minority and were all excommunicated or refused fellowship by seated Bishops





Clement of Alexandria



Modalistic Monarchian Leaders

Post-Apostolic -to- Ante-Nicene

Always official Church Bishops


Clement of Rome

Ignatius of Antioch

Ireneaus of Lyons

Theophilus of Antioch

Melitto of Sardis

Victor of Rome

Elutherus of Rome

Callistus of Rome

Zephyrinus of Rome

(Quite Possibly Stephen of Rome)

Noetus of Smyrna

Praxeas of Asia Minor

Sabellius of Rome ?

"Sabellianism, Christian heresy that was a more developed and less naive form of Modalistic Monarchianism (see Monarchianism); it was propounded by Sabellius (fl. c. 217–c. 220), who was possibly a presbyter in Rome."

-Encyclopedia Brittainica

Marcellus of Ancyra

Photinus of Sirmium

-Col 2:8-10

"Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.

For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.

And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power:"




The Roman Catholic Church developed out of the Proto-Trinitarian anti-Church movement in the late 3rd Century in response to the onslaught of Arianism.

Trinity doctrine itself was not codified until the late 4th Century, undergoing later revisions from the 5th to 13th Centuries.

" It MUST also be conceded by Trinitarians that the Doctrine of the Trinity, as now believed in, DID NOT find general acknowledgment until the 4th Century...."

-Ref: Morning Light Journal, vol. 7, 3/10/1883, 

Oxford University

"The Trinitarian Dogma is in the last analysis, a late 4th century invention."

-New Catholic Encyclopedia

"The full development of trinitarianism took place in the West, in the scholasticism of the Middle Ages, when an explanation was undertaken in terms of philosophy and psychology, especially of the recovered Aristotelianism of the 13th century."

-Encyclopedia Americana, XXVII, pgs27-28

Proto-Trinitarians usurped the Bishop seat in Rome (Italy) from the Monarchians around the middle 3rd Century but still claimed to hold to the "Divine Monarchy", Logos being emminated from The Father and begotten in the beginning, in continuation of Monarchian Orthodoxy. 

The Monarchians said that the proto-Trinitarians denied the Divine Monarchy by making Logos a second subordinate Person other than The Father, which the proto-Trinitarians did in accordance with the rules of philosophy (the high academia of the day). 

" can I be possibly destroying the Monarchy from the faith,...."

-Turtullian, proto-Trinitarian, Against Praxeas, Ch4

Alexandrian (Egypt) Proto-Trinitarians during the mid to late 3rd Century taught that Logos was "eternally begotten, (manifested)," along side The Father as a seperate being. This view was what encompassed the fledgling Roman Catholic Church movement and was rejected by the majority of Proto-Trinitarians, as well as Monarchians, in the day. 

When Athanasius of Alexandria signed the Nicene Creed in the 4th Century and became leader of the whole of the Proto-Trinitarian movement, the Roman Catholic Church was born and the Alexandrian School's doctrine, which was once universally rejected, was made into law, Empire wide, and later enforced under penelty of death.

The bloody State Religion thereafter adopted the Alexandrian School's Tritheistic views birthed by Origen and advanced by Athanasius, even though their views were based on Pagan Greek Platonic Philosophy.

"Trinitarian Doctrine as such emerged in the fourth Century, due largely to the efforts of Athanasius...."

-Encyclopedia of Catholicism, pg 1271

"The doctrine of Athanasius is dependent upon Alexandrian Platonism."

-Encyclopedia Britannica, vol 2, pg 666

"Gregory Thuamaturgos....and the Cappadocians, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, were inspired by Alexandrian theology."

-Johannes Quasten, Patrology, II, pg121

If the earliest Roman Bishops were all Monarchian, the Roman Catholic Church CANNOT claim Apostolic succession through the Roman seat. 

Additionally, due to the historical evidence and being that the Vatican's doctrine of God and baptismal formula were formulated post-Biblically, they CANNOT claim doctrinal continuity to the Apostles' through early successors who ALL taught One God and baptized in Jesus Name.

"NEITHER the word Trinity NOR the explicit doctrine appears in the New Testament, NOR did Jesus and his followers intend to contradict the Shema in the Hebrew Scriptures: “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is ONE Lord” (Deuteronomy 6:4)."

-Ref: Encyclopedia Brittanica

"Baptism was in fact performed in New Testament times, as far as our records go, in the name of Jesus, which is surprising if Jesus had laid down an explicit trinitarian formula before his ascension. An explanation for this may be found in the argument that these words, which later came to be used as a liturgical formula, were NOT originally so intended and used."

-R.F. France, Oxford University, 

Ref: The Gospel of Matthew

The Vatican's reign of death and vile deception will END when she is judged.

"Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:"

-Ref: Rev 17:1

In the manner of Jesus, i plead with Trinitarians;

"Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues."

-Ref: Rev 18:4

The Roman Catholic Church is the desolate one, the widow with no man's Name and she WILL see judgement !!!

God is raising up His TRUE Church during this EndTime for a revival to Biblical Christianity. Should YOU want to be a part of it, please contact me, i would love to speak with you. 


mark august; MDiv

writing for

Academy of Christian

Theological Studies

A.C.T.S. Think-Tank

"Bridging the Gap Between

Oneness and Trinitarianism"