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1st century baptism

1st Century Baptism


The question EVERY Christian needs to ask themselves is:

How did the Apostles teach?

Because they were those chosen by Jesus to propagate the Gospel message.

So if they didn't have it right when it comes to sound doctrine, no one does.

We happen to find a record of their enacting the doctrines of Jesus in the history book of the 
1st Century Church, the book of Acts.Introduction:

___________________

Ratification:

" I have examined and reviewed the study by Mark August on 1st Century baptism. I have 
found his study to be Biblically sound and fully documented. I can see the time and research Mr. August has done to present this subject of 1st Century baptism. I appreciate all his comments and historical research that he presents to show the truth of invoking the name of Jesus Christ in Christian baptism, as practiced by the original Apostles of the first century. Mr. August is to be commended for such scholarship of researching on this most important subject. "
--Bishop D.R. Vestal, PhD, ThD, Oneness,
Chancellor, Cypress Bible Institute

" I have reviewed Mark August’s treatise on First Century Water Baptism and found it to be Biblically accurate, theologically sound, and historically correct. It is a study in Apostolic Praxis that will bless multitudes and is already changing lives, causing them to align themselves with Biblical truth. It is my desire that all of our ministers be equipped with this powerful teaching. It is essential to anyone called to ministry in the 21st-century. " 
--Dr. Larry L Yates, PhD, ThD, DMin, Oneness,
Professor, International Apostolic University

" There is always one that stands out in pursuit of truth that sets us free. I personally find Mark August's expository work as a quintessential example of a true scholar. His work on First Century Baptism and calling on the name of the Lord is outstanding. As you read, have an open mind for in-depth insights. "
--Dr. Lambert Agama, DD, DETh., Trinitarian,
Professor of Expository Theology, South Florida Bible College and Seminary

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Historically:

I would say, the events recorded in the Acts of the Apostles chapter 2 occurred about 30ad.

Matthew 28:19 was written about 70ad.

Matthew was standing side by side in 30ad. There with Peter, at that time, as Peter preached Acts 2:38.

There is no evidence of Matthew being in non agreement with what Peter was preaching in 30 ad.

In fact, the church continued to baptise in Jesus Great Name up until the book of Matthew was written and circulated in about 70ad.

Matthew 28:19 is read by the masses, 40 years AFTER Peter preached in Acts 2.

There is NO evidence to suggest that the 1st Century Church changed their baptismal formula in 70ad. after reading Matthew 28:19. 

In fact, the Church continued to baptise in Jesus Name up until the late 2nd Century, 170 ad., a full 100 years AFTER Matthew 28:19 was written and circulated. 

So lets re-cap:

Jesus taught the Apostles, 25-30ad.

The Apostles taught their students, 30-90ad.
(Jesus Name baptism is exclusive, even AFTER circulation in 70ad. of Matthew 28:19)

The students of The Apostles teach students of their own, etc... 90-170ad.
(Jesus Name Baptism is STILL exclusive until 170ad., Justin Martyr.)

Justin Martyr was the first to baptise in the titles, 170ad., it is worth noting here that evidence exists showing Justin Martyr did also in fact baptize in the Matthew 28:19 formula combined with the Acts 2:38 formula.

It is notable that there exists within ancient writings and SCRIPTURE, evidence
 (ie: Romans) that suggests the recipient would make a statement of faith before the death ritual of Christian Water Baptism. 

Additionally, It is debated as to if questioning the candidate into statements is historically correct. 

Note: Before the 18th Century the theological consenses was in favor of baptismal regeneration, meaning that baptism is necessary for salvation.

1st Century Baptism also included 
SELF INVOCATION.

"This appeal may refer especially to the invocation of the Name by the candidate in answer to the baptizer's interrogation as to his acceptance of ex animo of the true allegiance"
-Ref: Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and EthicsVolume 2 Page 378

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Biblically:

i would point out that obedience played a huge role in one receiving what one was seeking from YHWH.

Obedience also played a huge role in the fulfillment of YHWH's purpose for a man.

Salvation is no exception.

"and, once made perfect, HE became the source of eternal salvation for ALL who OBEY him"
--Hebrews 5:9 NIV

The Apostle Paul would explain it this way:

"Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?"

(Righteousness comes from OBEDIENCE !!!)

"But God be thanked, that ye were the servants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you."

(I WANT TO OBEY FROM MY HEART)

"Being then made free from sin, ye became the servants of righteousness."
--Romans 6:16-18
(OBEDIENCE MAKES ME FREE FROM SIN)

Scripture COMMANDS that the baptismal RECIPIENT  "INVOKE", G1941, the Name of Jesus during the actually act of being Baptised. 
(Ref Acts 22:16)

Acts 22:16 proves when and how The Name of Jesus is applied:

1) When?...At baptism
2) How?...The Recipient should "Invoke"

A man MUST believe that calling on Jesus's Name during baptism saves him.
(Ref John 1:12, Acts 2:21, Acts 4:12)

Scripture NEVER says:

"Those who the Name of The Lord is CALLED OVER shall be saved"

Scripture ALWAYS says:

"They that CALL ON the Name of the Lord shall be saved". 
(Ref Acts 2:21, Rom 10:13)

"How then shall THEY (the convert) "invoke" Him..."
-Ref: Romans 10:14

NOTE: A.C.T.S. does NOT teach self baptism, ministers are commanded to baptize in Math 28 and Biblical examples can be found in abundance showing the role of ministers baptizing peoples, being in the water with them. 

A.C.T.S. encourages the minister to remain in tradition and invoke Jesus Name over the recipient, though we can find no Biblical example of a direct command to do so.

A.C.T.S. Church baptizes in Jesus Name, exactly like any Oneness Pentecostal Church, accept we follow after the example of Ananias in Acts 22:16 and purposefully instruct the convert to "invoke" Jesus Name in baptism. 

The Minister should preside over the ritual, and ensure proper understanding of the recipient and genuine repentance is met and belief. 

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Grammatically:

On Acts 22:16, G1941:
"…calling on the name of the Lord" (epikalesamenos to onoma autou). The word "calling" (epikalesamenos) is nominative case, singular in number, masculine in gender, participle, aorist 1 in tense, and middle voice (The Analytical Greek Lexicon, pg. 157). The participle form (the "ing") shows ongoing action and a relationship to baptism and the middle voice indicates that this is something the subject (Saul or Paul) is doing to benefit himself....."
-Ref: BibleTruths.net

On Acts 22:16, G1941:
"Now comes probably the most important phrase of this verse.....First off, the word "calling" (G1941) is a present participle. As with the preceding imperatives, it is also in the middle voice. It is also in the second person.....the ALT uses "you yourself." Again, Ananias is emphasizing it is Paul himself who must call on the Lord.....And finally, the ALT includes a cross reference to Acts 2:21. The verse reads in the ALT, “And it will be [that] every[one] who himself shall call on the name of [the] LORD will be saved!” And this verse in turn is being quoted from Joel 2:32. So earlier in the Book of Acts and in the Old Testament the idea of calling on the name of the Lord as being the means by which one is saved is seen." 
-Ref: Gary Zeolla, ALT Chairman, on Acts 22:16 ALT

GREEK LEXICON, on G1941 in Acts 22:16:
calling on
ἐπικαλεσάμενος (epikalesamenos)
Verb - Aorist Participle Middle - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 1941: (a) To call (name) by a supplementary (additional, alternative) name, (b) mid: To call upon, appeal to, address

KJV LEXICON, on G1941 in Acts 22:16:
επικαλεσαμενος  verb - aorist middle passive - nominative singular masculine 
epikaleomai  ep-ee-kal-eh'-om-ahee:  to entitle; by implication, to invoke (for aid, worship, testimony, decision, etc.) -- appeal (unto), call (on, upon), surname.

THAYER'S LEXICON, on G1941 in Acts 22:16:
5. Hebraistically (like יְהוָה בְּשֵׁם קָרָא to call upon by pronouncing the name of Jehovah, Genesis 4:26Genesis 12:82 Kings 5:11, etc.; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, p. 1231{b} (or his Hebrew Lexicon, under the word קָרָא); an expression finding its explanation in the fact that prayers addressed to God ordinarily began with an invocation of the divine name: Psalm 3:2Psalm 6:2Psalm 7:2, etc.) ἐπικαλοῦμαι τό ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου, I call upon (on my behalf) the name of the Lord, i. e. to invoke, adore, worship, the Lord, i. e. Christ: Acts 2:21 (from Joel 2:32 ()); ; Romans 10:131 Corinthians 1:2; τόν κύριον, Romans 10:122 Timothy 2:22; (often in Greek writings ἐπικαλεῖσθαι τούς Θεούς, as Xenophon, Cyril 7, 1, 35; Plato, Tim., p. 27 c.; Polybius 15, 1, 13). 

On Matthew 28:19:
Father=common noun
Son=common noun
Holy=adjective modifying Ghost
Ghost=common noun
JESUS=PROPER NOUN

The proper name JESUS 
(Acts 4:12, Acts 22:16)
is what is described by The Master in Matthew 28:19.

The Singular Name of Yeshua, (Jesus).

To teach that one does not have to "Invoke", G1941, Jesus's Name for one's self during the ritual conscience washing of Christian water baptism, is directly opposed to the teachings of scripture.
(Ref: Joel 2:32, Acts 2:21, Acts 22:16, Rom 10:13-15)

--John 1:12
"But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:"

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Exegetically:

A.C.T.S. views Peter's sermon reference in
 Acts 2:38 on Jesus Name baptism much like we view another of Peter's sermons in
 Acts Chapter 10: 43,48.

"To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins."
-Acts 10:43

Here in this one verse Peter is preaching salvation to converts and remission of sins is the goal and it's the Name that accomplishes the goal.

But there is no mention of how to apply the Name in the verse.

If i only have this verse i say...remission of sins
Is from believing in the Name.

But in a SEPERATE verse, (48) the Bible explains how the Name is applied at baptism.

Now in Acts 2:38, as above, remission of sins is the goal but contrary to Peter's sermon above in Acts 10, this time Peter included in the verse (38) the explaination that the Name is applied at baptism, thereby providing the goal and application in one single verse. 

In one case when Peter is preaching, Chapter 10, the Bible says the application of the Name is the means by which the goal is achieved but it takes 2 seperate verses to 
explain the thought because Peter's sermon got interupted by The Holy Spirit.

In other cases the thought comes together differently.

Acts chapter 10

1) Goal (verse 43) 
remission of sins

2) Application (verse 48)  
Jesus Name baptism

3) Method 
N/A

Observations:
2 verses to express thought,
No mention of method.
--------------------

Acts Chapter 2 

1) Goal (verse 38)
Remission of sins

2) Application (verse 38)
Jesus Name baptism

3) Method (verse 21)
Convert invokes Jesus Name

Observations:
2 verses to express thought,
Method identified.
-------------------

Acts 22:16

1) Goal 
(wash away sins)

2) Application 
(Jesus Name baptism)

3) Method 
(convert invokes)

Observations:
1 verse to express thought,
All 3 identified in one verse.

-----------------

Exegesis:

Goal: 
Remission (Acts 2:38, 10:43) and to 
"wash away" sins (Acts 22:16)

Application:
Jesus Name baptism (Acts 2:38, 10:48, 22:16)

Method:
Convert "invokes" (Acts 2:21, 22:16)

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Hermeneutics:
-John 1:12, 3:5,7,18= Baptism necessary
-Acts 10:43= "Prophets" bear witness
-Joel 2:32= HOW the Prophet bears "witness"
-Acts 2:21,38= Enacting Prophet's doctrine
-Acts 22:16= Instructs Convert to "Invoke"
-Rom 10:13-15= "They" hear and "invoke"
Conclusion: Convert invokes Jesus Name 

--------------------------

Expository:

-Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges
(On Acts 22:16)
"calling on the name of the Lord] The oldest authorities give “calling on His name,” which refers back to “the Just One.” Probably the Textus Receptus is due to a desire to make the phrase accordant with Acts 2:21."

-Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers
(On Acts 22:16)
Calling on the name of the Lord.—The better MSS. give simply, “calling upon His name,” i.e., the name of the Just One whom St. Paul had seen. The reading in the Received text probably arose from a wish to adapt the phrase to the language of Acts 2:21.

-Barnes' Notes on the Bible
(On Acts 22:16)
"Calling on the name of the Lord - For pardon and sanctification, Romans 10:13, "Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved." It was proper that this calling on the name of the Lord should be connected with the ordinance of baptism. That ordinance was emblematic of a purifying which the Lord only could produce. It is proper that the rite of baptism should be attended with extraordinary prayer; that he who is to be baptized should make it the occasion of special and very solemn religious exercises. The external rite will avail nothing without the pardoning mercy of God."

-Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
(On Acts 22:16)
"calling on the name of the Lord; the name of the Lord is not only to be used by the administrator of baptism in the performance of it; but it should be called upon by the person who submits to it, both before and at the administration of it, for the presence of Christ in it; and this invocation of the name of the Lord in baptism, signifies an exercise of faith in Christ at this time, a profession of him, and obedience to him."
________________

Translations:

Acts 22:16

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
“And now why do you wait? Arise, be baptized, and be cleansed from your sins while you call upon his name.”

International Standard Version
"So now, what are you waiting for? Get up, be baptized, and have your sins washed away as you call on his name."

New Living Translation
"What are you waiting for? Get up and be baptized. Have your sins washed away by calling on the name of the Lord."

Holman Christian Standard Bible
"And now, why delay? Get up and be baptized, and wash away your sins by calling on His name."

God's Word Translation
"What are you waiting for now? Get up! Be baptized, and have your sins washed away as you call on his name."

Douay-Rheims Bible
"And now why tarriest thou? Rise up, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, invoking his name."

Amplified Bible
"Now, why do you delay? Get up and be baptized, and wash away your sins by calling on His name [for salvation]."

Orthodox Jewish Bible
"And now what do you intend to do? Get up and receive Moshiach's tevilah of teshuva and wash away your averos (sins) by calling upon SHMO.' [VAYIKRA 8:6; TEHILLIM 51:2; YECHEZKEL 36:25; YOEL 3:5(2:32) ZECHARYAH 6:12]"

Analytical-Literal Translation
"And now, why are you delaying? Having gotten up, get yourself baptized, and get yourself washed [or, purified][of] your sins, you [or, sins by you] yourself calling on the name of the Lord.' [cp. Acts 2:21]"
 

_________________

Patristically:

Is baptism necessary for salvation?

"Happy is our sacrament of water, in that, by washing away the sins of our early blindness, we are set free and admitted into eternal life! A treatise on this matter will not be superfluous; instructing not only such as are just becoming formed (in the faith), but them who, content with having simply believed, without full examination of the grounds of the traditions, carry (in mind), through ignorance, an untried though probable faith. The consequence is, that a viper of the Cainite heresy, lately conversant in this quarter, has carried away a great number with her most venomous doctrine, making it her first aim to destroy baptism. Which is quite in accordance with nature; for vipers and asps and basilisks themselves generally do affect arid and waterless places. But we, little fishes, after the example of our ΙΧΘΥΣ Jesus Christ, are born in water, nor have we safety in any other way than by permanently abiding in water; so that most monstrous creature, who had no right to teach even sound doctrine, knew full well how to kill the little fishes, by taking them away from the water!"
-Turtullian, origin of the treatise, chapter 1,
2nd Century

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"Then we bring them to a place where there is water, and they are regenerated in the same manner in which we ourselves were regenerated. They then receive the washing with water in the name of God"
-Justin Martyr, 2nd century
(First Apology, Chapter 61).

----------------
"And when we come to refute them, we shall show in its fitting-place, that this class of men have been instigated by Satan to a denial of that baptism which is regeneration to God, and thus to a  renunciation of the whole [Christian] faith."
-Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Book One, Ch. 21, 2nd century

-----------------
"water is sure; ye shall see the King in His glory and your soul shall meditate on the feat of the Lord."

"that baptism which leads to the remission of sins."
-Barnabas, The Epistle of Barnabas:XI, 
2nd century

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 "was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water." 
-Ignatius, 1st century

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“'And dipped himself,' says [the Scripture], 'seven times in Jordan.' It was not for nothing that Naaman of old, when suffering from leprosy, was purified upon his being baptized, but it served as an indication to us. For as we are lepers in sin, we are made clean, by means of the sacred water and the invocation of the Lord, from our old transgressions; being spiritually regenerated as new-born babes, even as the Lord has declared: 'Except a man be born again through water and the Spirit, he shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.'" 
-Irenaeus, (Fragment, 34, A.D. 190).

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 "The Church received from the Apostles the tradition of giving Baptism.... For the Apostles, to whom were committed the secrets of divine mysteries, knew that there is in everyone the innate stains of sins, which must be washed away through water and the Spirit." 
-Origen, 3rd Century, Commentary on 
Romans, 5:9

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“When, however, the prescript is laid down that 'without baptism, salvation is attainable by none" (chiefly on the ground of that declaration of the Lord, who says, "Unless one be born of water, he hath not life.'" 
-Turtullian, On Baptism, 12:1, A.D. 203

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“The Church was redeemed at the price of Christ's blood. Jew or Greek, it makes no difference; but if he has believed, he must circumcise himself from his sins [in baptism (Col. 2:11-12)] so that he can be saved . . . for no one ascends into the kingdom of heaven except through the sacrament of baptism . . . "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God" 
-Ambrose, 4th Century, on 
Abraham 2:11:79-84

"Jews and Gentiles, fully believing as they ought, are in like manner baptised", by, "invoking the Name of The Lord Jesus."
-Anonymous Apologist, writing against Cyprian
3rd Century

" It (water baptism) works forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the devil, and gives everlasting salvation to all who believe, as the word and promise of God declare..."
-Martin Luther, Small Catechism, 1529

" The anti-type whereof - the thing typified by the ark, even baptism, now saveth us - that is, through the water of baptism we are saved from the sin which overwhelms the world as a flood: "
-John Wesley, 18th century, Commentary on 
1st Peter 3:21

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JESUS NAME Water Baptism ;
Encyclopedia References

BRITANNICA ENCYCLOPEDIA 
11TH edition, Vol 3, Pg 365-366 
The baptismal formula was changed from the name of JESUS CHRIST to the words Father, Son, & Holy Ghost by the Catholic Church in the second century.
________________________________________
BRITANNICA ENCYCLOPEDIA
Vol 3, Pg 82
Everywhere in the oldest sources it states that baptism took place in the name of Jesus Christ.
________________________________________
CANNEY ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION
Pg 53
The early church always baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus until development of Trinity doctrine in the 2nd century.
________________________________________
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA
Vol 2, Pg 263
Here the Catholics acknowledged that baptism was changed by the Catholic Church.
________________________________________
HASTINGS ENCYCLOPEDIA
OF RELIGION
Vol 2, Pg 377
Christian baptism was administered using the words “In the name of Jesus”.
Vol 2, Pg 378
The use of a Trinitarian formula of any sort was not suggested in early Church history.
Vol 2, Pg 389
Baptism was always in the name of Lord Jesus until the time of Justin Martyr when Triune formula was used. 
________________________________________
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA
Vol 8
Justin Martyr was one of the early Fathers of the Roman Catholic Church.
________________________________________
HASTINGS ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION
Vol 2, Pg 377 on ACTS 2:38
NAME was an ancient synonym for “person”. Payment was always made in the name of some person referring ownership. Therefore one being baptized in Jesus Name became his personal property. “Ye are Christ’s.” 
________________________________________
NEW INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA
Vol 22, Pg 477
The term “Trinity” was originated by Tertullian, a Roman Catholic Church Father.
________________________________________
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION AND ETHICS
(1951), II, 384, 389
The formula used was ‘in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ’ or some synonymous phrase; there is no evidence for the use of the trine name… The earliest form, represented in the Acts, was simple immersion….in water, the use of the name of the Lord, and the laying on of hands. To these were addedm at various times and places which cannot be safely identified, (a) the trine name (Justin)….
________________________________________
INTERPRETERS DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE
(1962) I, 351
The evidence … suggests that baptism in early Christianity was administered, not in the threefold name, nut ‘in the name of the Lord Jesus’.
________________________________________
A HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN THOUGHT (Otto Heick)
(1965), I, 53
At first baptism was administered in the name of Jesus, but gradually in the name of the Triune God: Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
________________________________________
HASTINGS DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE
(1898), I, 241
[One explanation is that] the original form of words was ‘into the name of Jesus Christ’. Baptism into the name of the Trinity was a later development.
________________________________________
A HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Williston Walker, (1947), Pg 58
The Trinitarian baptismal formula … was displacing the older baptism in the name of Christ.
________________________________________
THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE
(1957), I, 435
The New Testament knows only baptism in the name of Jesus …, which still occurs even in the second and third centuries.
________________________________________
CANNEY’S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIONS
(1970), Pg 53
Persons were baptized at first ‘in the name of Jesus Christ’ … or ‘in the name of the Lord Jesus.’… Afterwards, with the development of the doctrine of the Trinity, they were baptized ‘in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.
________________________________________
ENCYCLOPEDIA BIBLICA
(1899), I, 473
It is natural to conclude that baptism was administered in the earliest times ‘in the name of Jesus Christ,’ or in that ‘of the Lord Jesus.’ This view is confirmed by the fact that the earliest forms of the baptismal confession appear to have been single – not triple, as was the later creed.
________________________________________
ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA
11TH edition, (1910), Vol 2, Pg 365
The Trinitarian formula and trine immersion were not uniformly used from the beginning… Bapti[sm] into the name of the Lord [was] the normal formula of the new Testament. In the 3rd century baptism in the name of Christ was still so wide spread that Pope Stephen, in opposition to Cyprian of Carthage, declared it to be valid.
________________________________________

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JESUS NAME BAPTISM:
Acts 22:16 Insert:

Biblical Application:

A) 
-Acts 2:21
"And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved."

B.)
-Acts 4:12
"Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved"

C)
-Acts 8:12
"But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women."

D)
-Acts 10:43
"To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins."

E)
-John 1:12
"But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:"

F)
-1st John 2:12
"I write unto you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name's sake."

G)
-John.3:18. 
"but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God"

H)
-Acts 22:16
" And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord."

------------------------------

SOURCE DATA:
King James Concordance 
Strong
Thayer

FROM G1941 we find thusly:

Verses containing G1941 concerning Christian Baptism

Rom 10:13,14  For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
14 How then shall THEY call on him

(WHO ARE THE -THEY  ??? We assert it is referring to the convert.
 )
Act 2:21  And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.

Act 22:16  And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.

G1941
ἐπικαλέομαι
epikaleomai

Literally: to "entitle" onesself

Thayer Definition:
1) to put a name upon, to surname
1a) to permit one’s self to be surnamed
2) to be named after someone
3) to call something to one
3a) to cry out upon or against one
3b) to charge something to one as a crime or reproach
3c) to summon one on any charge, prosecute one for a crime
3d) to blame one for, accuse one of
4) to invoke
4a) to call upon for one’s self, in one’s behalf
4a1) any one as a helper
4a2) as my witness
4a3) as my judge
4a4) to appeal unto
5) to call upon by pronouncing the name of Jehovah
5a) an expression finding its explanation in the fact that prayers addressed to God ordinarily began with an invocation of the divine name
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: middle voice from G1909 and G2564
Citing in TDNT: 3:496,*

Strongs Definition:
Middle voice from G1909 and G2564; to entitle; by implication to invoke (for aid, worship, testimony, decision, etc.): - appeal (unto), call (on, upon), surname.

King James Concordance:
G1941

Total KJV Occurrences: 38
call, 9
Act_2:21, Act_9:14, Rom_10:12-14 (3), 1Co_1:2, 2Co_1:23, 2Ti_2:22, 1Pe_1:17
on, 6
Act_9:21 (2), Act_22:16, Rom_10:14, 2Ti_2:22, 1Pe_1:17
surname, 6
Mat_10:3, Act_10:5, Act_10:32, Act_11:13, Act_12:12, Act_12:25
surnamed, 5
Luk_22:3, Act_1:23, Act_4:36, Act_10:18, Act_15:22
appealed, 4
Act_25:12, Act_25:21, Act_25:25, Act_26:32
called, 4
Act_9:21, Act_15:17, Heb_11:16, Jam_2:7
appeal, 2
Act_25:11, Act_28:19
calling, 2
Act_7:59, Act_22:16.

A.C.T.S. FINDINGS:

One, NEW TESTAMENT VERSE SHOWS 
example of direct instruction to INVOKE (G1941) 
THE NAME OF JESUS DURING THE RITUAL OF CHRISTIAN BAPTISM:

Act 22:16  And now why tarriest thou? Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling (G1941) on the name of the Lord.

The minister is sent by Jesus to command Paul, the RECIPIENT, to "invoke" (G1941) Jesus Name in water  BAPTISM.

Though, there are many examples in the Bible given of Christian Baptism in JESUS NAME and 
THE COMMAND GIVEN to perform it, we will explore the two most comparable to Acts 22:16 when it comes to a direct command to invoke. 

Mathew 28:19     and     Acts 2:38

Mathew 28:19:

Instructs the ministers to baptize “in the name of” but 
NEVER instructs to INVOKE (G1941).

Acts 2:38:

Instructs the recipients to be baptized “in the name of” but     NEVER instructs to INVOKE (G1941).

----------------------

A.C.T.S. CONCLUSION:

The preponderance of the evidence, both grammar and hermeneutics, supports our view of Acts 22:16.
 

-The Prophets bear witness-

"To him give all the PROPHETS witness, that through HIS NAME whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins."
-Acts 10:43 (the chief Apostle)

+ (PLUS)

-Joel 2:32 (our Prophet giving witness)
"And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls on THE NAME of the LORD shall be saved. "

------------- (EQUALS)

"And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on THE NAME of the Lord."  
-Acts 22:16 (a Jesus sent preacher)

=======(BOTTOM LINE)

After a careful study of Acts 22:16, One must place the Apostolic practice that this verse contains, back into the commands of Acts 2:38 and Matthew 28:19 where it belongs.

Acts 22:16 identifies how and when the saving Name of Jesus is applied to a new believers life.

When? 
At water baptism.

How? 
The recipient should,
"Invoke", (G1941), 
The Name of JESUS. 

The ONE INSTANCE of direct instruction to INVOKE (G1941) the Name of Jesus in Christian Baptism is given in: 
Acts 22:16  which commands the recipient to invoke The Name as opposed to the administrator.

The Bible NEVER says:
"Those who The NAME of The LORD is invoked over shall be saved." 

The Bible ALWAYS says:
"Those who invoke The NAME of The LORD shall be saved."
(--Ref: Acts 2:21, Romans 10:13,14)

"Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved."
--Acts 4:12

John 1:12 AMP
But to as many as did receive and welcome Him, He gave the right [the authority, the privilege] to become children of God, that is, to those who believe in (adhere to, trust in, and rely on) His name--

"Can One obey Acts 2:38 without obeying Acts 22:16?"

"My answer is No"
--Steven Ritchie; Apostolic Apologist

That is the pressing question of our time.

Mark August
writing for:
Academy of Christian 
Theological Studies
A.C.T.S. College

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